Section of Iconographic Handscroll(手帕上的肖像)

Kamakura period,14th century .

Ink and colour on paper,78x33cm.

Of the many forms of Buddhishism,the esoteric sects the most complex.Mixing elements of Hinduism and other Asian religions with Buddhist beliefs, the esoteric or tantric sects such as Shingon and Tendai became extemely powerful in the Heian period,and have continued to exert a strong influence upon Japanese religion to the present day .

Shingon Buddhism works towards enlightenment here on earth through the ritual of gaining the powers of various deities through meditation,incantation, and esoteric rituals. Alarge number of higher and lesser gods and goddesses,each with particular powers,are invoked by the believer,who eventually absorbs some of their higher consciousness and occult mystery. This is not a religion for the masses,but rather for the monk who has the intelligence,determination, and spiritual strength to attempt to attain Buddhahood on earth. In some ways it is similar to Zen, except that in Zen the enlightenment is always within us and only needs an awakening, while in Shingon Buddhism it is achieved through the powers of many deities.Even the most devout of monks,however,cannot be expected to remember all the gods and the methods of serving them.Therefore,a series of scrolls were made for esoteric temples in which the images of the deities and their rituals were depicted and described. The surviving examples, many from the fourteenth century, are either kept within the temples or have occasionally appeared in the secular world,cut into sections and separately mounted .

In this example we see two manifestations of the most popular of Bodhisattvas,Kannon. On the right is the blue-headed (or blue-necked)Kannon,and the left the Amba(mother)Kannon. Neither appearin the usual forms.Usually blue- headed Kannon is seated upon a cliff, while the blue-necked Kannon has three faces: a tiger, a pig , and a face of human pity.The three small devils are also an esoteric addition to this scroll. The text, which is extemely complex, descibes the different deities and the proper means of worship. We are told, for example, that the believer must first recite a mantra 100,000 times before a statue of Kannon, putting fragrant flowers upon the altar. Using an oil lamp , at midnight one must get up and put on clean clothes to recite the mantra 1,000 times before morning without sleep. This will not only bring spiritual rewards, but also financial gain!

It further states that the blue-headed Kannon,with Sanskrit letter signifying the magic name, holds a lotus flower in the left hand and hold the right palm out. One should sit in meditation and chant with the thumbs held in the fist and fingers touching. The Bodhisattva is alsd to have a form with three eyes and four arms, riding on a white lion with an attendant holding a musical instrument and a bird. These are not pictured. The full understanding of this text would need long schlarly research, but it is cleat that this painting and calligraphy   represent a magical and complex form of Buddhism that requires a    lifetime  of study and devotion  to be understood. Something of the power and mystery of Shingon Buddhism can be seen in this handscroll section.—《One Thousand Years of Art in Japan》

这是篇关于绘制在手帕上的肖像,是14世纪的镰仓时代。这篇文章中谈到了中国的天台和印度佛教信仰话题,天台宗中的密宗派和真言密宗和其它教派,说到天台宗的深奥和对日本的影响问题。(平安时代:Heian Per。是古代日本最后一个时代,在794年随着恒武天皇把首都从奈良迁到京都时期,到在1192年建立镰仓时代,镰仓幕府一揽大权为止。对日本历史有兴趣的可以自己搜索关于镰仓幕府时期的事情,就可以同时知道关于佛教在日本的地位变化过程与佛教文化背景,这里就不再说关于其它历史话题。)平安时代是日本文化和历史发展的最高峰时期,也是佛教文化最鼎盛时期。天台宗和其它宗派在这个平安时期对日本是产生最深渊的影响的特别时期。因为在这个时期是日本和中国接触最紧密的时期,唐风内韵在平安时期已经融会在日本的血液中,甚至可以说,影响到日本的今天。





右边的蓝观音,左手持莲花和右手掌了进一步规定。 每个人都应该坐在冥想和拳头和手指在触摸举行的拇指,菩萨是要与三只眼睛,四只手的形式,白色的狮子骑一拿着乐器和鸟类。文中说这些都不是因想象而来的。这幅画面和书法很有意思。或许就是佛教的神秘与复杂之处。在真言宗里,那些真正心喜而研究佛教之神秘和其独有的力量,的确是要人注定去奉献其一生。





About leng xuetian(冷雪天)

I am an art lover
This entry was posted in Art Appreciation 艺术鉴赏. Bookmark the permalink.

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